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BMW가 플러그인 하이브리드 모델에 'eDRIVE'란 이름을 붙이면서 영역 확장에 나서는 모습입니다. 강화되는 이산화탄소 규제와 배터리의 한계로 당분간 플러그인 하이브리드 형태의 모델들이 아주 많이 등장할 전망인데 BMW가 그 선구적 자리를 차지하려는 모양입니다. SUV쪽에서의 움직임이 가장 활발한데 코드네임 F15의 신형 X5 xDRIVE40e의 경우 모터와 직렬 4기통 가솔린 터보 엔진을 결합해 최고출력 313마력을 내고 3.4~3.3리터의 연료로 100km를 주행할 수 있다는군요. 물론 플러그인 방식이니 최고시속 120km 이하로 약 30km를 모터와 배터리 전원만으로도 달릴 수 있습니다.  



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2014 BMW i8 양산형 대용량 사진들 - 2013 프랑크푸르트 모터쇼
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2013 미쓰비시 아웃랜더 PHEV 고화질 사진들
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독일 프리미엄 브랜드인 BMW가 그린에 중점을 둔 서브 브랜드 ‘아이’(i)를 출범을 알렸다. BMW는 앞으로 아이 브랜드를 통해 친환경 모델을 지속적으로 출시할 예정. 그에 앞서 지난달 29일 플러그인 하이브리드 스포츠카 개념의 i8과 도심형 i3 컨셉트카를 공개했다.

감각적인 디자인이 돋보이는 i8의 파워트레인은 앞을 모터로, 뒤를 엔진으로 구동하는 인텔리전트 AWD 시스템이다. 즉, 앞쪽에 130마력의 모터를 결합하고 새로 개발 중인 직렬 3기통 1.5L 가솔린 터보 220마력 엔진으로 뒷바퀴를 움직인다. 풀 가속 시에는 이 둘을 모두 사용해 4.6초만에 시속 100km/h에 도달하고 최고시속은 250km/h에서 제한된다.

i8이 기존 스포츠카와 차별화된 부분은 이렇게 뛰어난 성능을 지녔음에도 연비는 일반 가솔린 모델의 소형차 수준이라는 점이다. 전기 모드(EV)로 최대 35km를 주행할 수 있기 때문에 유럽 복합 모드의 연비가 37km/L에 달하며 이산화탄소 배출량은 66g/km에 불과하다. 플러그인 하이브리드 개념으로 배터리 완충에 필요한 시간은 1.5시간으로 빠른 편이다.


BMW i8 Concept . emotional, dynamic and efficient.
The BMW i8 Concept and the fascinating approach that underpins it embody the vision of a sustainable contemporary sports car brought to life. Its innovative plug-in hybrid concept combines the modified electric drive system from the BMW i3 Concept . fitted over its front axle . with a high-performance three-cylinder combustion engine producing 164 kW (220 hp)/300 Nm (221 lb-ft) at the rear. The electric motor in the BMW i8 Concept is a full-capability unit which
can also power the car on its own, if required. However, working in tandem allows the two drive systems to display their respective talents to the full, delivering the performance of a sports car but the fuel consumption of a small car.
Acceleration of 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in under five seconds combined with fuel consumption in the European cycle of under three litres per 100 kilometres (approx. 94 mpg imp) and average customer fuel consumption of between five and seven litres per 100 kilometres (40.4 . 56.5 mpg imp) . even when driven hard . are figures currently beyond the capability of any vehicle powered by a combustion engine of comparable performance. Thanks to its large lithium-ion battery, which can be charged from a domestic power supply, the BMW i8 Concept can travel up to 35 kilometres (approx. 20 miles) on electric power alone. A large proportion of short everyday journeys can therefore be completed with zero emissions. The car’s electric-only mode allows it to enter emissions-capped central areas of cities with access restrictions in place for petrol or diesel-powered vehicles. The i8 Concept’s efficiency rating is further enhanced by its ability to generate energy at both axles. The electric motor at the front axle recoups maximum energy every time the driver brakes, while a high-voltage alternator hooked up to the combustion engine charges the battery, if required. Added to which, the 2+2-seater offers enough space for four people, giving it a high level of everyday practicality.
The emotional design of the BMW i8 Concept ensures its qualities are clear for all to see. Its dynamic proportions give the BMW i8 Concept the appearance of surging forward before it even turns a wheel and lend visual form to its extraordinary performance. The sophisticated concept behind the upward-swivelling doors fixed to the A-pillars underlines the car’s sporting capability and opens up access to the front and rear seats at the same time.
A series of air inlets allow the air to flow through and around the vehicle to optimum effect, ensuring extremely low drag. They also add visual emphasis to these advanced aerodynamics. Airflow plays an extremely important role at the rear of the vehicle as well. Intakes behind the passenger cell and at the rear provide a cooling flow of air through the engine compartment, while outlets in the rear diffuser and the flow of air around the rear wheels ensure the car is extremely efficient in terms of lift and downforce at both axles.
BMW
Media
Information
7/2011
Page 7
The LifeDrive architecture of the BMW i8 Concept has been carefully adapted to enhance the vehicle’s sports car character, and therefore to deliver unbeatable performance and excellent driving dynamics. The motor in the front axle module and combustion engine at the rear are connected by an “energy tunnel”, which houses the high-voltage battery. This gives the car a low centre of gravity . and the dynamic benefits that come with it. The positioning of the electric motor and engine over their respective axles and the space-saving and well-balanced packaging of all components result in an optimum 50/50 weight distribution.
The weight of every component inside the BMW i8 Concept has been minimised down to the very last detail, allowing the extra weight of the electric drive system and battery to be cancelled out. The BMW i8 Concept therefore presents the ideal environment in which to sample this very special drive concept on the road. The passengers sit . in typical sports car style . in an extremely low and enclosed position inside the CFRP-constructed Life module (mounted above the Drive module).
The sporting character of the BMW i8 Concept continues into the interior. Boasting a driver-focused environment unmatched by any BMW Group vehicle before it, the BMW i8 Concept immerses the driver fully in the unique driving experience. The purpose-built driver’s position is geared squarely towards the person at the wheel and gives optimum access to all information and controls. The three-dimensional displays are crystal clear and flash up the relevant information for the driving situation at hand. The interior as a whole is defined by the functionality of a classical BMW sports car and majors on lightness and ease of use. The BMW i8 Concept is the sports car for a new generation . pure, emotional and sustainable.


Length/Height/Width
L 4632 mm, H 1280 mm, W 1955 mm
Wheelbase
2800 mm
No. of seats
2 + (2)
Kerb weight
1480 kg
Output
260 kW /550 Nm system output of which petrol engine: 164 kW / 300 Nm
of which electric motor: 96 kW / 250 Nm
Top speed
250 km/h / 155 mph governed
Acceleration
0-100 km/h / 62 mph 4.6 s
80-120 km/h / 50-75 mph 4.0 s
Fuel consumption (EU cycle):
2.7 l/100 km / 104 mpg imp (66 g CO2)
Electric range
approx. 35 km / 20 miles
Battery charge time
Standard: 1:45 h for 100% charge
Luggage compartment
approx. 150 litres
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2011 상하이모터쇼 - 아우디 A3 e-트론(A3 e-tron) 컨셉트카. 최고출력 211마력 1.4리터 터보차저 엔진과 27마력 전기 모터, 리튬이온 배터리로 구성된 플러그인 하이브리드 컨셉트카로 EV모드(전기차모드)로 최대 54km를 주행할 수 있다.

Concentrated technical expertise –
in the Audi A3 e-tron concept

Audi is set to unveil an attractive technical study – the A3 e-tron concept – in Shanghai. The four-seat notchback sedan integrates the full breadth of the brand’s technological expertise – from the enhanced MMI operating system, to the high-end infotainment system, to the drivetrain. And with its two powerplants and lithium-ion batteries that store enough energy to propel the car on electric power alone for up to 54 km (34 miles), the plug-in hybrid also delivers high fuel efficiency.

Design and body
The Audi A3 e-tron concept is a four-seat notchback sedan. It measures 4.44 meters (14.57 ft) long and 1.84 meters (6.04 ft) wide, but just 1.39 meters (4.56 ft) high – proportions that underscore its dynamic character.

The design represents the typical Audi language of sporty elegance. The single-frame grille is integrated into the front end, giving it a sculptured look. Its frame is made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), and the transversely mounted, three-dimensional aluminum louvers create a visual effect that emphasizes the showcar’s width. The headlights merge with the beveled upper corners of the single-frame, forming a transition that marks the starting point of the prominently accentuated lines of the engine hood.

The headlights represent a new stage of evolution in LED technology, a groundbreaking innovation from Audi. They become broader as they extend outward, and a line underneath makes them seem to float on air. Above the front spoiler is a full-length air intake, also made of CFRP, framed by a metal clasp. The spoiler features a splitter that increases the downforce on the front wheels.

When viewed from the side, too, the A3 e-tron concept is recognizable at first sight as an Audi – with its harmonious proportions, taut, muscular surfaces and a low roof dome with fluid lines flowing into a flat, coupe-like C-pillar. The shoulder area transitions elegantly into the tailgate. Characteristic of Audi design, the greenhouse accounts for one-third of the height, while the sheet metal makes up the remaining two-thirds.

Powerfully flared fenders hint at the power of the engine. Two prominently elaborated lines accentuate the flank: the undercut tornado line beneath the window edge and the dynamic line above the sills. The exterior mirrors, made of aluminum and CFRP, are perched atop the window-channel strips. The door handles with their brushed-aluminum clasps are recessed flush with the door. When the driver touches them, they power-extend.

The intelligent interplay between surfaces and lines also defines the tail end of the A3 e-tron concept. The broad, flat tail lights are sculptured and culminate in a point on the inside, and the tailgate bears an elegant spoiler edge. The rear apron includes a diffuser insert of CFRP and metal, which in turn surrounds the two large tailpipes for the exhaust system.

Ultra-modern components, design methods and joining techniques keep the body weight low. One example of this are the custom tailored blanks (panels of various thicknesses) in the floor area. The doors, engine hood and tailgate are made of aluminum. With its high levels of rigidity, the body provides the basis for the sedan’s precise handling, excellent vibrational comfort and low weight – the Audi A3 e-tron concept tips the scales at just 1,720 kilograms (3,792 lb).

Interior
The interior of the showcar is generously proportioned. The long wheelbase measuring 2.63 meters (8.63 ft) – a best-in-class figure in the premium compact segment – gives rear passengers on the two individual seats a pleasing amount of knee room. The front sport seats with prominent side bolsters are slim and elegant.

The cockpit, too, gives an impression of lightness and airiness. The horizontal lines emphasize its design. The instrument panel draws the driver in – typical of Audi. Defined in three dimensions, the large trim strip is made of solid aluminum and includes control functions. The high-quality sound system in the doors and on the rear shelf has aluminum trim panels. When the audio system is turned on, they extend a few millimeters, thus orchestrating a visual accompaniment to the system’s excellent sound.

On the center console, four large, round air vents echoing a jet’s design catch the eye. The air flow is adjusted by pulling and pushing on the center axis of the vents. The control knobs for the automatic air conditioning system are located in the lower section of the center console on a boldly protruding, dedicated control panel. Visually, they are reminiscent of airplane turbines.

Behind the compact, flat-bottomed, three-spoke multifunction steering wheel is an innovative display concept that renders the individual driving states of the hybrid drive clear-cut and tangible. The tachometer on the instrument cluster has been replaced by a “power meter,” with a needle that indicates the total system output on a scale of 0 to 100 percent. A second scale is divided into colored segments. At a glance, the green and orange segments clearly indicate where the A3 e-tron concept is drawing its power – from the electric motor, the combustion engine, or a combination of both. An additional instrument displays the charge level of the battery.

In between the two large round dials is the large, eight-inch display for the driver information system. This display and the large monitor of the MMI system show the operating states and power flows in the hybrid system in elegant graphics with a three-dimensional effect.

The MMI monitor also displays differentiated consumption and recuperation statistics in easily understandable bar graphs.

The control panel for the MMI multimedia system is located on the center tunnel console. The interface on its large rotary pushbutton features another novelty – the “MMI touch” touchpad. This new solution, which makes the already exemplary operation even more intuitive, will soon be introduced in series production at Audi. The ultra-thin MMI monitor power-extends upwards out of the instrument panel, another feature taken from the full-size car class.

In terms of infotainment, the Audi A3 e-tron concept shows why the brand is leading the competition. A UMTS model provides full access to the Internet, allowing the car to retrieve convenient services from Google. Thanks to the WLAN hotspot, passengers can surf and send e-mail to their hearts’ content. Holders for iPads are installed on the back of the front seat backrests.

A classic notchback sedan, the Audi A3 e-tron concept boasts a large luggage compartment with a volume of 410 liters (14.48 cubic ft) and a low loading lip.

Drivetrain
Designed as a plug-in hybrid, the A3 e-tron concept is propelled by two power units – a 155-kW (211-hp) 1.4 TFSI four-cylinder engine with turbocharging and gasoline direct injection and an electric motor with an output of 20 kW (27 hp). The system provides a combined output of 175 kW (238 hp). Working together, the gasoline engine and electric motor accelerate the notchback to 100 km/h (62.14 mph) in 6.8 seconds, then on to 231 km/h (143.54 mph). A regulated oil pump, the intelligent Audi thermal management system, a start-stop system and an energy recovery system – technologies from the brand’s modular efficiency platform – all contribute to this high efficiency.

At the heart of the A3 e-tron concept are the lithium-ion batteries located behind the rear seats. With a charge capacity of 12 kWh, they give the notchback a range of up to 54 km (34 miles) on electric power alone.

The batteries are charged by the standard energy recovery system when the car is in motion or directly from a household power socket when it is parked. This means that in most cases, the car is entirely emission-free in city driving.

A compact seven-speed S tronic serves as the transmission for the compact plug-in hybrid. It comprises two transmission structures, which are operated by two clutches. Gears are alternately shifted by the two clutches – at lightning speed, comfortably, and without any perceptible interruption of traction.

The driver can operate the seven-speed S tronic in one automatic mode and one manual mode, using the paddles on the steering wheel to shift gears manually. Elegant touch control buttons alongside the handrest on the center tunnel console are used to select drive positions R, N and D. These are backlit in red when it gets dark. Drive position P is automatically engaged when the electric parking brake is applied. The launch control system manages the sprint from a dead stop, furnishing explosive turbo power with minimal tire slip.

Chassis
Derived from the current RS 3 Sportback, the Audi A3 e-tron concept’s chassis is fully capable of handling the power from the drive system at all times. The four-seater masters any type of curve with speed, stability and composure. Its self-steering response remains essentially neutral all the way up to the lofty handling limits.

The front suspension – a MacPherson construction with a separate axle support – has a track measuring a full 1,572 millimeters (61.89 in). The rack-and-pinion steering is extremely efficient because its electromechanical drive system requires no energy when driving straight ahead.

The four-link rear suspension with its 1,542-millimeter (60.71-in) track is likewise fixed to a subframe. Its control arms made of high-strength steel enable the suspension to absorb longitudinal and lateral forces separately. The shock absorbers and coil springs are mounted separately from each other.

The Audi drive select dynamic handling system gives the driver five modes from which to select the characteristics of the engine, power steering and seven-speed S tronic. The modes are comfort, auto, dynamic, individual and efficiency, the last of which is designed for maximum economy.

The imposing light-alloy rims measure 20 inches in diameter. The tire format is 245/30 at the front and rear. The front brake disks are gripped by four-piston calipers. The ESP stabilization system has a Sport mode and can be completely deactivated. The parking brake is actuated electromechanically.

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